Outcome measures

This guidance provides information about measures to help assess a person's current or future health status and to demonstrate the effectiveness of treatment. Includes links to various resources.

Introduction

Measures of health status and healthcare outcomes are tools to assess a person's current or future health status and demonstrate the effectiveness of treatment.

Below you can access measures used by clinicians on the WorkSafe Clinical Panel. The list is not exhaustive but includes measures that are particularly useful in clinical practice. Using the links provided, you can download and print the measure, or complete and score it online. All measures are free to use.

For terms you may be unfamiliar with, see the Definitions section on this page.

Measuring and demonstrating the effectiveness of treatment is the first principle of the Clinical Framework for the Delivery of Health Services, an excellent companion to these tools.

Non-specific measures

General Measures

Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC)/Global Rating of Change (GRC)

  1. Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) / Global Rating of Change (GRC)

    Type

    • Evaluative

    Description

    • Reviews the patient's impression of progress they've made with treatment.

    See review

    Advantages

    • Simple to understand.
    • No scoring required.
    • A horizontal 7 point scale has good clinimetric properties.

    Precautions or limitations

    • The wording that introduces the scale needs to be carefully considered to get an unambiguous response. Possible wording: very much better, better, slightly better, the same, slightly worse, worse, very much worse. For the midpoint, wording could be "unchanged" with end points spelt out in words and numbers or marks.
    • The scale should be used along with at least one standardised outcome measure.

Patient Specific Functional Scale (PSFS)

  1. Type
    • evaluative

Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI)

  1. Type

Screening measures

General measures

Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (OMSPQ)

  1. Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (OMSPQ)

    Type

    • Discriminative
    • Predictive

    Description

    • Predicts long-term disability and failure to return to work when completed between 4 to 12 weeks.
    • Scores of 130 or above predict those who failed to return to work in studies. Scores of 105 or below predict recovery and those who will not take sick leave.
    • See a frequently asked questions document by one of the authors of the OMSPQ.

    FAQ document

    Advantages

    • While the short form (OMSPQ-10) has replaced the OMSPQ in many clinical practices, the longer version gives more clinical information.
    • The person's responses to each item may provide significant insights into their thoughts and beliefs about their pain and as such add value to the clinical assessment process.
    • Screening tools allow for risk factors and barriers to recovery to be addressed early via the implementation of early psychosocial interventions.
    • Available in many languages.

    Precautions or limitations

    • Scoring is a little complex.
    • Has not been validated as an evaluative measure.
    • Should be introduced in the first 3 months after an injury.

Short Form Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (OMSPQ-10)

  1. Type
    • discriminative
    • predictive

Keele STarT Back Screening Tool

  1. Type
    • discriminative
    • predictive

WhipPredict

  1. Type
    • discriminative
    • predictive

Pain measures

General measures

Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)

  1. Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)

    Note: To be determined if this measure remains free to use.

    Type

    • Discriminative of pain severity
    • Evaluative

    Description

    • Allows rapidly but comprehensively assessment of pain severity and the impact of pain on daily functions.
    • A key measure in ePPOC.
    • Monitors change in both pain intensity and pain interference with many aspects of a person's life throughout a treatment program. (MDC = 1/10, MCID = 2+/10) This is sensitive to the initial severity and the individual circumstances.

    Advantages

    • Simple to score. Two scores are for pain severity and pain interference.
    • Widely validated and extensively used in diverse research and clinical settings.
    • IMMPACT recommendations for assessing clinical significance for 0-10 numeric pain scales:
      • Change of ≥10% represents minimally important change.
      • Change of ≥30% represents moderate clinically important change.
      • Change of ≥50% represents substantial clinically important change.

    Precautions or limitations

    • None of note.

Pain Self Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ)

  1. Type
    • discriminative of severity
    • evaluative

Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS)

  1. Type
    • discriminative of severity of pain catastrophising
    • evaluative
    • predictive of persistent pain, disability and a poor return to work outcome

Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK)

  1. Type
    • evaluative
    • predictive

Self report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Scale (s-LANSS)

  1. Type
    • discriminative for neuropathic and nociceptive pain
    • evaluative

painDETECT

  1. Type
    • discriminative for neuropathic pain components in adults with low back pain

Musculoskeletal measures

Back and lower limb

  1. Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Score (HOOS)

    Type

    • Evaluative

    Description

    • Explores how the hip condition is impacting on the person and can be used to monitor changes in hip function, pain and quality of life with treatment interventions.

    Advantages

    • Can be completed and scored online.
    • More responsive than the WOMAC.
    • Available in over 20 languages.

    Precautions or limitations

    • Can take up to 15 minutes to complete.
    • Complex to score if not done online.

    Online tool available

    Option 1

    Option 2

Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS)

  1. Type
    • evaluative

Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI)

  1. Type
    • evaluative

Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODQ)

Québec Back Pain Disability Scale (QBPDS)

  1. Type
    • evaluative

Back Bournemouth Questionnaire

Head, neck and upper limb

Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH)

  1. Type
    • evaluative

Quick DASH

  1. Type
    • evaluative

Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI)

  1. Type

Upper Extremity Functional Index (UEFI)

  1. Type
    • evaluative

Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (WDQ)

Headache Disability Index (HDI)

  1. Type
    • evaluative

Neck Disability Index (NDI)

  1. Type
    • evaluative

Neck Bournemouth Questionnaire

Disability measures

Balance

Functional Independence Sitting Test (FIST)

  1. Type

5x sit to stand

  1. Type
    • evaluative
    • predictive

Timed Up and Go (TUG)

  1. Type
    • evaluative
    • predictive

Step Test

  1. Type
    • evaluative

Functional Reach Test

  1. Type
    • evaluative

Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest)

  1. Type
    • discriminative
    • evaluative

Mobility

10-metre walk test

  1. Type
    • evaluative
    • predictive

6-minute walk test

  1. Type
    • evaluative

HiMAT

  1. Type

Upper limb

Action Research Arm Test (ARAT)

  1. Type
    • evaluative

Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI)

  1. Type
    • evaluative

Goal setting

Goal Attainment Scale (GAS)

  1. Type
    • evaluative

Quality of life

Community Integration Questionnaire – Revised (CIQ–R)

Performance measures

30-second chair stand test

  1. Type

40-metre fast-paced walk

  1. Type

6-minute walk test

  1. Type

Psychological measures

Depression, anxiety (dis)stress

Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 42 Item (DASS-42)

  1. Type
    • discriminative
    • evaluative

Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 Item (DASS-21)

  1. Type
    • discriminative
    • evaluative

Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10)

  1. Type
    • evaluative
    • predictive

Post-traumatic stress disorder

Impact of Events Scale – Revised (IES–R)

  1. Type
    • discriminative
    • predictive

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist – 5 (PCL–5)

  1. Type
    • discriminative
    • evaluative
    • predictive

Substance abuse

Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test short form (AUDIT-C)

  1. Type
    • discriminative

Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)

  1. Type
    • evaluative
    • predictive

Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT)

  1. Type
    • discriminative
    • evaluative

Child/Adolescent

Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 – Child/Adolescent version (CAPS-CA-5)

  1. Type
    • discriminative
    • evaluative

Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)

  1. Type
    • evaluative
    • predictive

Neuropsychology

Overt Behaviour Scale (OBS)

  1. Type
    • evaluative

Definitions

Types of measures

Other terms