The fatigue risk management guidance on this page applies only during a surge in demand due to coronavirus (COVID-19) and other times of crisis. During times of normal operation, employers in the healthcare and social assistance industry should refer to WorkSafe's existing guidance on fatigue prevention and management.
Read the guidance on this page together with the WorkSafe guidance, Prevention and management of exposure to coronavirus (COVID-19) in the healthcare and social assistance industry.
Health and safety responsibilities
Under the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 (OHS Act), employers must, so far as reasonably practicable, provide and maintain for employees a working environment that is safe and without risks to health. This includes preventing risks to safety and health, including psychological health, associated with potential exposure to coronavirus (COVID-19). This guidance can help employers and other duty holders fulfil their OHS Act responsibilities to prevent and manage the potential increased risk of fatigue in healthcare employees due to a surge in demand due to coronavirus (COVID-19).
Employers must identify risks to employees' health from fatigue due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis. This must be done in consultation with any health and safety representatives (HSRs), employees and independent contractors.
Increased risk of fatigue due to a surge in demand or crisis may arise from a range of factors, including:
- working additional shifts
- working longer shifts
- dealing with more intense workloads
- not getting adequate breaks
- prolonged use of personal protective equipment (PPE) leading to difficulties rehydrating and communicating
- the need to frequently change PPE
The increased demand because of a crisis such as coronavirus (COVID-19) can result in symptoms including, for example:
- mental fatigue from periods of intensive concentration due to increased workload, working remotely or learning a new area of work
- physical fatigue due to working in more difficult physical circumstances, increased patient load, wearing PPE or working with patients with higher acuity and physical needs
- emotional fatigue from working long hours in high-pressure environments
- stress from heavy patient loads and work demands affecting personal life
- anxiety, including anticipation, fear and worry around what could happen
- burnout from supporting others
- Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Note: Burnout is not a recognised term under the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5), but is defined by the World Health Organisation's ICD-11 as 'a syndrome conceptualized as resulting from chronic workplace stress that has not been successfully managed'.
Employers must eliminate health and safety risks in the workplace, so far as reasonably practicable. This includes risks to psychological health. Where it is not practicable or possible to eliminate the risk, employers must reduce the risk, so far as reasonably practicable.
Employees must take reasonable care of their own and others' health and safety in the workplace and cooperate with their employers about any action the employer takes to comply with occupational health and safety obligations.
The control measures an employer should implement will depend on the level of risk as well as the availability and suitability of controls for each workplace, including individual work areas.
Examples of fatigue can include employees reporting that they feel mentally exhausted, are suffering from headaches or eye strain or cannot think clearly. The following measures can help control the risk of fatigue during a surge in demand:
- Shift work
- Mental workload
- Emotional workload, stress, anxiety, burnout and PTSD
- Use the hierarchy of control
Quarantining and screening for coronavirus (COVID-19)
Employers should implement a screening process to minimise the introduction of coronavirus (COVID-19) to a workplace. This could include asking employees before they enter the workplace if they:
- have any coronavirus (COVID-19) symptoms
- have been in contact with any confirmed cases of coronavirus (COVID-19)
- are subject to any health directions, such as isolation, quarantine or in relation to travel
To ensure person-to-person contact is minimised, screening may be in the form of a self-assessment that employees can complete prior to attending the workplace for each shift.
The staff coronavirus (COVID-19) health questionnaire on the Business Victoria website is a useful screening tool for employers.
Employers should direct employees to report to them if employees:
- experience any symptoms
- have been or have potentially been exposed to someone who has been diagnosed with or is suspected of having coronavirus (COVID-19)
If an employee develops any of the symptoms of coronavirus (COVID-19), however mild, they should:
- self-isolate immediately, seek advice from their doctor or the DHHS 24-hour coronavirus hotline on 1800 675 398, and get tested
- inform their line manager so that:
- their work area/common areas, for example, lunch room and staff toilet, can be restricted until appropriately cleaned
- other staff on duty in the same area can be documented in case of the need to trace contacts
- patient contacts that day and the previous 48 hours can be documented in case of the need to trace contacts
- follow the procedures their workplace has in place and update their employer if their situation changes, for example, if they receive a positive coronavirus (COVID-19) diagnosis
Employers have duties under the OHS Act, which include that they must, so far as reasonably practicable:
- provide and maintain a working environment that is safe and without risks to the health of employees and independent contractors
- provide adequate facilities for the welfare of employees and independent contractors
- provide such information, instruction, training or supervision to employees and independent contractors as is necessary to enable those persons to perform their work in a way that is safe and without risks to health
- monitor the health of employees at any workplace
- monitor conditions at any workplace under the employer's management and control
- provide information concerning health and safety to employees, including, where appropriate, in languages other than English
- ensure that persons other than employees are not exposed to risks to their health or safety arising from the conduct of the undertaking of the employer
- consult with employees and any HSRs on matters related to health or safety that directly affect, or are likely to directly affect them
A person with management or control of a workplace must ensure, so far as reasonably practicable, that the workplace and the means of entering and leaving it are safe and without risks to health.
Employees also have duties under the OHS Act, which includes that they must:
- take reasonable care for their own health and safety
- take reasonable care for the health and safety of persons who may be affected by the employee's acts or omissions at a workplace
- co-operate with their employer with respect to any action taken by the employer to comply with a requirement imposed by or under the OHS Act
The OHS Act gives HSRs a role in raising and resolving any OHS issues with their employer, and powers to take issues further if necessary. WorkSafe has guidance on powers for HSRs and a card linking to the guidance appears in Further information.
Prevention and management of exposure to coronavirus in healthcare and social assistance
Fatigue prevention in the workplace: Your health and safety guide
Information for employers: Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004
Powers of health and safety representatives
Business Victoria: Hospitality Industry Guidelines for coronavirus (COVID-19)External link
DHHS: Coronavirus (COVID-19) - I am feeling unwell, what should I do?External link
DHHS: Coronavirus (COVID-19)External link