Managing the risk of coronavirus (COVID-19) exposure: Agriculture industry

Preventing and controlling employee exposure to coronavirus (COVID-19) in the agriculture industry.

Last updated

Wednesday 01 Jul 2020

Industries and topics
  • Agriculture
  • Infectious diseases

Coronavirus (COVID-19) and workers in the agriculture industry

Coronavirus (COVID-19) can cause mild to severe respiratory illness. The most common symptoms reported are:

  • fever
    • chills or sweats
      • cough
        • sore throat
          • shortness of breath
            • runny nose
              • loss of sense of smell or taste

                In certain circumstances headache, muscle soreness, stuffy nose, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea may also be considered symptoms of coronavirus (COVID-19).

                Coronavirus (COVID-19) is most likely to spread from person-to-person through:

                • close contact with an infected person
                  • touching objects or surfaces (such as door handles) contaminated by a person with the infection

                    For more information about the transmission and symptoms of coronavirus (COVID-19), see the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) website (link below).

                    Seasonal, contract and casual employees are an essential part of many workplaces within the agriculture industry. These employees may be particularly vulnerable to exposure to coronavirus (COVID-19) due to:

                    • working, living and travelling in close proximity to other people
                      • seasonal work patterns which can result in frequent moving between places of work and living, and increased risk of spreading the virus
                        • the transient nature of the work may result in employees not being familiar with:
                          • workplace policies and procedures
                          • emergency procedures
                          • training specific to coronavirus (COVID-19)
                          • infection control policies
                          • hand hygiene
                          • what to do when they are feeling unwell
                          • how to raise concerns

                        Under the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 (OHS Act) employers have a duty to provide and maintain, so far as is reasonably practicable, a working environment that is safe and without risks to the health of employees, including independent contractors. This includes preventing risks to health, including psychological health, and safety associated with potential exposure to coronavirus (COVID-19).

                        Employees have a duty to take reasonable care of their own and others health and safety in the workplace and cooperate with their employers about any action they take to comply with the OHS Act or Regulations.

                        Identifying risks in the agriculture industry

                        Employers must identify hazards and, if necessary, assess the level of risk to the health of employees from exposure to coronavirus (COVID-19) at their workplace.

                        This must be done in consultation with health and safety representatives (HSRs), if any, and employees, so far as is reasonably practicable.

                        Risks for employees in the agriculture industry include:

                        • sharing facilities in the workplace and in group accommodation, such as bathrooms, kitchens and communal break areas
                          • shared or group transportation, for example travelling between accommodation and places of work
                            • work that requires employees to be in close contact with others
                              • sharing tools, plant or equipment

                                An increased risk of spreading coronavirus (COVID-19) can occur when:

                                • employees are not entitled to sick leave (such as casual workers) and may continue working if they are unwell
                                  • employees do not seek medical attention should they become ill, for example when seasonal, contract and casual do not have a relationship with a local GP
                                    • employees do not know where to access reliable information, or information in appropriate languages about coronavirus (COVID-19) safety and precautions

                                      Fatigue risks in the agriculture industry

                                      The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has changed working and living environments for many employees in the agriculture industry. Factors such as increased stress in work and personal life, changes to working environments and increased work demands, can increase the risk of fatigue in the workplace. Fatigue can affect a person’s health and increase the chance of workplace injuries. 

                                      Controlling risks

                                      Face coverings in workplaces

                                      Directions from the Chief Health Officer about face coverings may be in place in your area. For more information see the guidance Managing coronavirus (COVID-19) risks: Face coverings in workplaces.

                                      Where a risk to health is identified at a workplace, employers must, so far as is reasonably practicable, eliminate the risk. Where it isn't possible to eliminate the risk, it must be controlled, so far as is reasonably practicable

                                      Consult with employees

                                      Employers have a duty to consult with employees, independent contractors and any HSRs, so far as is reasonably practicable, on matters related to health or safety that directly affect, or are likely to directly affect them. This includes consultation on identifying hazards or risks and decisions about how to control risks associated with coronavirus (COVID-19). The consultation should be conducted in accordance with any agreed consultation procedures.

                                      The types of control measures required depends on the level of risk as well as the availability and suitability of controls for each workplace, including individual work areas.


                                      A comprehensive induction process can reduce the risk to health and safety, and should include:

                                      • providing a full induction and orientation into the role
                                        • providing support contacts
                                          • training in relevant policies and procedures, for example, infection control incident reporting, and specific controls associated with coronavirus (COVID-19)

                                            Ensure employees know what to do

                                            An employer's duty to eliminate or reduce risks associated with exposure to coronavirus (COVID-19) so far as is reasonably practicable includes ensuring that:

                                            • employees know what to do or who to notify if they feel unwell or suspect they have been infected, according to the information provided by DHHS (see link below)
                                              • any unwell employee does not attend the workplace, including employees who have been tested for coronavirus (COVID-19) or who are confirmed coronavirus (COVID-19) cases

                                                If an employee develops any of the symptoms of coronavirus (COVID-19), however mild, they should:

                                                • self-isolate immediately, seek advice from their doctor or the DHHS 24-hour coronavirus hotline on 1800 675 398, and get tested
                                                  • tell their employer as soon as possible, follow the procedures their workplace has in place, and update their employer if their situation changes (for example if they receive a positive coronavirus (COVID-19) diagnosis)

                                                    Notifiable incidents and coronavirus (COVID-19)

                                                    From 28 July 2020 new temporary regulations under the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004 specify when employers and self-employed persons must notify WorkSafe of a confirmed diagnosis of coronavirus (COVID-19) in the workplace. For more information see the guidance Notifiable incidents involving coronavirus (COVID-19).


                                                    Employers should implement a screening process to minimise the introduction of coronavirus (COVID-19) to a workplace. This could include asking employees before they enter the workplace if they:

                                                    • have any coronavirus (COVID-19) symptoms
                                                      • have been in contact with any confirmed cases of coronavirus (COVID-19)
                                                        • are subject to any health directions (such as isolation, quarantine or in relation to travel)

                                                          To ensure person-to-person contact is minimised, screening may be in the form of a self-assessment that employees can complete prior to attending the workplace for each shift.

                                                          The staff coronavirus (COVID-19) health questionnaire on the Business Victoria website is a useful screening tool for employers (link below).

                                                          Workplace mapping

                                                          In the event of an employee being confirmed as having coronavirus (COVID-19), those who are potentially affected need to be quickly identified.

                                                          To enable tracing of those who have come into contact with the confirmed case, employers should implement processes to record the schedule and work locations for employees.

                                                          The record should include:

                                                          • day and time work was undertaken
                                                            • members of teams that worked together
                                                              • specific work area
                                                                • any breaks taken, including time and location

                                                                  Movement between workplace locations, or areas within large workplaces, should be minimised as much as possible.

                                                                  Where attending multiple locations is necessary, movement between locations should be recorded in the workplace mapping.

                                                                  Physical distancing

                                                                  Physical distancing of at least 1.5 metres should be implemented wherever possible.  Employers should consider each work task and whether there is a safe alternative way to undertake the work with an increased distance between employees.

                                                                  Other controls may include:

                                                                  • marking safe distances in work, transit and break areas (for example on floors and walls)
                                                                    • considering different shift patterns to minimise the number of employees onsite (for example introducing morning and afternoon shifts)
                                                                      • staggering start times, break and finish times to avoid congestion in high traffic areas and minimise employees coming into contact with each other as they move around the workplace
                                                                        • planning for how physical distancing will be maintained during inclement weather (for example use of lunch rooms and amenities)
                                                                          • installing temporary physical barriers (such as plastic screens) between work areas, where appropriate
                                                                            • spreading out furniture in common areas to maintain physical distancing requirements. When changing the physical layout of the workplace, ensure the layout allows safe entering, exiting and moving about the workplace
                                                                              • directing delivery drivers to remain in vehicles and use contactless methods (such as mobile phones) to communicate with employees, wherever possible
                                                                                • rostering employees that share accommodation together into dedicated work units, to reduce the likelihood of coronavirus (COVID-19) transmission between employees that do not live together. Dedicated work units should still practice physical distancing wherever possible and should be separated from other work units (such as not sharing living or transport facilities).

                                                                                  Where it is not possible to undertake work tasks and maintain physical distancing, other control measures need to be implemented. For example:

                                                                                  • minimising the number of person-to-person interactions that need to be completed within 1.5 metres
                                                                                    • minimising the number of individuals involved in activities that need to occur within 1.5 metres of each other
                                                                                      • providing personal protective equipment (PPE) (such as gloves, masks, face shields)

                                                                                        Note: PPE is a protection of last resort, and should only be used in certain situations.

                                                                                        More information about the safe use of PPE is set out below.

                                                                                        Staff gatherings and training

                                                                                        If employers must have face-to-face meetings or training with employees, then ensure that: 

                                                                                          • employees can keep at least 1.5 metres apart and with at least 4 square metres of space per person
                                                                                            • face-to-face time is limited
                                                                                              • the number of people attending is as limited as possible
                                                                                                • If indoors, the area is well ventilated
                                                                                                  • wherever possible, replace face-to-face meetings and training with video and teleconferencing.


                                                                                                    Maintaining good hygiene can prevent the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19). Employers should:

                                                                                                    • Ensure all employees follow good hygiene practices, including:
                                                                                                      • washing hands frequently with soap and water for at least 20 seconds
                                                                                                      • covering coughs and sneezes, or coughing into their elbow or shoulder
                                                                                                      • avoiding touching eyes, nose and mouth
                                                                                                    • Display hygiene information in prominent locations in the workplace such as meal break rooms, work sheds and toilets and in a format that is understood by all workers.
                                                                                                      • Provide alcohol-based hand sanitiser at workplace entrances and exits, and in all meal and break rooms.
                                                                                                        • Communicate with staff about hand sanitiser locations and encourage regular use.
                                                                                                          • Regularly discuss hygiene requirements with employees and supervise to ensure they are followed.
                                                                                                            • Direct visiting delivery drivers and contractors to use alcohol-based hand sanitiser before handling products being delivered.
                                                                                                              • Ensure handwashing facilities, or if not possible, alcohol-based hand sanitiser, is readily available for employees after physically handling deliveries.

                                                                                                                DHHS information


                                                                                                                Employers must ensure that employees have access to appropriate amenities. Employers should review and revise the number and locations of amenities, to reduce movement around the workplace.

                                                                                                                Amenities need to include:

                                                                                                                • hand washing facilities (whether permanent or temporary), such as a wash basin, clean running water, soap and paper towels, placed in strategic locations to ensure employees can access them in a timely manner
                                                                                                                  • access to hand sanitiser
                                                                                                                    • rubbish bins with touch-free lids (such as foot pedal bins)
                                                                                                                      • thorough and regular sanitation
                                                                                                                        • appropriate waste management systems

                                                                                                                          Shared tools, plant and equipment

                                                                                                                          Avoid the shared use of tools, plant and equipment wherever possible.

                                                                                                                          Where it is not possible to eliminate shared use, employers should:

                                                                                                                          • Provide cleaning products (such as alcohol spray or solution) where communal tools, plant and equipment are located.
                                                                                                                            • Keep cleaning products with tools, plant and equipment as they move around the site.
                                                                                                                              • Ensure all operators thoroughly wash or sanitise their hands before and after every use.
                                                                                                                                • Ensure all parts of tools, plant and equipment (including handles and handrails) are wiped down before and after use.

                                                                                                                                  The shared use of phones, desks, offices, computers and other devices should be avoided. Where this is not possible, these items should be regularly disinfected.


                                                                                                                                  Thorough and regular cleaning needs to be undertaken of all:

                                                                                                                                  • work areas
                                                                                                                                    • transit areas (such as cars, buses and minibuses)
                                                                                                                                      • communal and meal break areas
                                                                                                                                        • shared facilities (such as bathrooms and kitchens)
                                                                                                                                          • shared equipment

                                                                                                                                            Training on the safe use of chemicals and personal hygiene requirements must be provided to any person undertaking cleaning.

                                                                                                                                            Cleaning needs to be conducted in accordance with the DHHS information on cleaning and disinfecting for business and construction sites (see link below).

                                                                                                                                            DHHS information

                                                                                                                                            Personal protective equipment

                                                                                                                                            Employers must provide information, instruction and training on the safe use, decontamination, maintenance and disposal of any PPE provided. They must also provide any necessary supervision.

                                                                                                                                            Any PPE provided needs to be practical for the work environment (allowing the necessary visibility and mobility) and properly decontaminated or disposed of at the end of every shift.

                                                                                                                                            Employers should monitor and encourage correct use of PPE, for example by providing information on posters about:

                                                                                                                                            • washing or sanitising hands before putting PPE on, and putting face protection on before gloves
                                                                                                                                              • removing gloves before face protection, washing or sanitising hands after removing PPE and decontaminating or disposing of used PPE safely

                                                                                                                                                DHHS information

                                                                                                                                                Managing work-related fatigue

                                                                                                                                                Employers must identify fatigue hazards in the workplace, assess and control the risks, so far as reasonably practicable.

                                                                                                                                                Control measures may include:

                                                                                                                                                • ensuring employees have sufficient sleep and recovery opportunity to mitigate the risk of fatigue
                                                                                                                                                  • enacting roster rules to minimise fatigue that:
                                                                                                                                                    • enable a minimum of ten hours between shifts
                                                                                                                                                    • minimise consecutive night shifts
                                                                                                                                                    • enable two nights' recovery sleep after a set of night shifts.
                                                                                                                                                  • ensuring processes are in place to minimise breaches of fatigue-based roster rules, such as shift swaps and overtime
                                                                                                                                                    • processes to assess and report employee fatigue and psychological wellbeing.

                                                                                                                                                      Commuting to, from and around work

                                                                                                                                                      Where an employer or host employer provides transport to employees, they should:

                                                                                                                                                      • Avoid carrying multiple passengers in cars or buses, unless they live in a household together.
                                                                                                                                                        • Where employees from different households must travel together, maintain a physical distance of at least 1.5m between passengers during transportation, wherever possible.
                                                                                                                                                          • Set the air conditioning to external airflow rather than to recirculation, or have windows open where appropriate.
                                                                                                                                                            • Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces (such as doors, handrails, seatbelts and windows) with appropriate cleaning and disinfectant solutions in between each trip.
                                                                                                                                                              • If transport is provided by a labour hire firm, consult the labour hire firm about how this will occur.

                                                                                                                                                                For more information on managing risks of employee exposure to coronavirus (COVID-19) when using vehicles for work, see Managing coronavirus (COVID-19) exposure risks: travelling in vehicles

                                                                                                                                                                Accommodating employees

                                                                                                                                                                Where an employer or host employer provides accommodation to employees, they should ensure:

                                                                                                                                                                • adequate and accessible facilities are in place to support the implementation of physical distancing and good hygiene 
                                                                                                                                                                  • arrangements are in place to enable workers to meet self-isolation requirements, if needed
                                                                                                                                                                    • accommodation is thoroughly cleaned and disinfected before the employees arrive, after they leave, and as regularly as possible during their stay
                                                                                                                                                                      • If accommodation is provided by a labour hire firm, consult the labour hire firm about how this will occur.

                                                                                                                                                                        What to do if an employee has coronavirus (COVID-19)

                                                                                                                                                                        In the event of a suspected or confirmed coronavirus (COVID-19) case, DHHS will contact the individual to identify close contacts.

                                                                                                                                                                        If the employee has attended their workplace while they were infectious and had close contact with other employees, DHHS will contact the employer. 

                                                                                                                                                                        Employers should establish a response plan and procedure for suspected and confirmed cases, which should include:

                                                                                                                                                                        • arrangements for consultation and communication with employees, including making sure contact details are up to date
                                                                                                                                                                          • maintaining workplace mapping information
                                                                                                                                                                            • identifying site locations for cleaning and disinfection
                                                                                                                                                                              • implementing an appropriate cleaning and disinfection regime, which should be overseen by a competent person, before allowing re-entry into the affected areas
                                                                                                                                                                                • providing employees with relevant information prior to re-entering the site and resuming work
                                                                                                                                                                                  • reviewing and revising systems to ensure risks are effectively controlled, in consultation with any HSRs and employees.  

                                                                                                                                                                                    Legal duties

                                                                                                                                                                                    Employers have duties under OHS Act, which include that they must, so far as is reasonably practicable:

                                                                                                                                                                                    • Provide and maintain a working environment that is safe and without risks to the health of employees and independent contractors.
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Where a risk to health is identified at a workplace, eliminate the risk. Where it isn't possible to eliminate the risk, reduce it, so far as is reasonably practicable.
                                                                                                                                                                                        • Provide adequate facilities for the welfare of employees and independent contractors.
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Provide such information, instruction, training or supervision to employees and independent contractors as is necessary to enable those persons to perform their work in a way that is safe and without risks to health.
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Provide information concerning health and safety to employees, including (where appropriate) in languages other than English.
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Monitor the health of employees of the employer.
                                                                                                                                                                                                • Monitor conditions at any workplace under the employer's management and control.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Ensure that persons other than employees of the employer are not exposed to risks to their health or safety arising from the conduct of the undertaking of the employer.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Consult with employees and HSRs, if any, on matters related to health or safety that directly affect, or are likely to directly affect them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Self-employed persons must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that people are not exposed to risks to their health and safety arising from how they conduct their business undertaking.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      A person with management or control of a workplace must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that the workplace and the means of entering and leaving it are safe and without risks to health.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Employees also have duties under the OHS Act, which includes that they must:

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Take reasonable care for their own health and safety.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Take reasonable care for the health and safety of persons who may be affected by the employee's acts or omissions at a workplace.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Co-operate with their employer with respect to any action taken by the employer to comply with a requirement imposed by or under the OHS Act.