Worker fatally injured by unstable forklift load

WorkSafe is issuing a reminder about the risks associated with forklift use, and the need to ensure forklift loads are secure and forklifts are operating within safe working limits, following recent fatalities.



Tragically, two workers have recently died in separate forklift incidents.

A 49-year-old worker was fatally injured when a large unstable load fell off the fork arms (tynes) onto him.

In a second forklift incident, a 25-year-old worker was killed when standing near a forklift being driven on a sloping driveway. The forklift tipped over, crushing the worker.

Safety issues

Employers must ensure all precautions are taken when using forklifts in the workplace.

Unstable loads can cause forklifts to tip, or the load may fall, crushing nearby workers or the operator.

Forklifts must only be operated by high risk licence holders.

Recommended ways to control risk

Forklifts are a hazard and, where reasonably practicable, should be eliminated from the workplace, or substituted with other suitable load shifting equipment. If this is not reasonably practicable, the risks associated with using forklifts must be reduced, using engineering or administrative controls, such as traffic management plans.

Once risk controls are in place they must be regularly reviewed, especially when an incident occurs or there is a change in work practices, and revised where necessary in line with regulation 121 of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations 2017 (OHS Regulations).

Avoid operating on inclines

Forklifts are designed to be operated on flat, hard, level surfaces, not inclines, slopes or ramps.

If there is no other option than to operate a forklift on an incline, carefully consider the nature of the load being handled.

When operating a forklift on an incline, at a minimum the load must be tilted back and raised only as far as needed to clear the road surface. Inclines should not be greater than 10 degrees or as specified by the manufacturer.

Loads and attachments

Prior to moving a load, consider the most appropriate load shifting equipment for the job. A forklift may not be the best option.

Forklifts with attachments are often used to carry non-palletised goods. For example, when a centre operated counter balanced forklift fitted with jib attachment is used to lift and carry large sheets of stone, steel, and plant maintenance items. Before using a forklift with an attachment to move a load, it is important to ensure:

  • The attachment is capacity rated to lift and carry the load.
  • The forklift's load capacity is de-rated to take into account the weight of the attachment, the increase in load centre and the swing of the load (this must be detailed of the load capacity plate).
  • The forklift with jib is only operated on a hard, flat, level surface.
  • There are no pedestrians in the vicinity, or an exclusion zone is present if it is not reasonably practicable to operate without pedestrians nearby.
  • The operator is trained in the use of the jib attachment.
  • The jib is only used for infrequent tasks. Alternative load shifting equipment should be considered for regular load shifting of the above products.

Never exceed the rated capacity of the forklift.

When long loads are handled by a forklift it is important to consider:

  • Steel carried on steel fork arms (tynes) is very slippery.
  • Raising long loads over obstructions and through doorways increases the risk of the load becoming unstable.
  • Long loads can easily shift and fall or cause the forklift to overturn.

Check loads before starting the engine

  • Ensure the most appropriate attachment is used to shift the load.
  • If the load is not placed correctly, reload it.
  • Check that the load is properly secured or placed (if possible) to avoid movement while shifting load.
  • Check that the load is within the forklift load limit listed on the load capacity plate.
  • If the load is particularly long or wide, check if you need to travel an alternative route.
  • If pallets are damaged, remove them.
  • Ensure pedestrians are not present during forklift operations.

Legal duties

Under the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004, employers must:

  • so far as is reasonably practicable, provide and maintain a working environment that is safe and without risks to the health of employees and independent contractors and their employees
  • so far as is reasonably practicable, provide and maintain plant that is safe and without risks to the health of employees and independent contractors and their employees
  • provide employees and independent contractors and their employees with the necessary information, instruction, training and supervision to enable them to do their work in a way that is safe and without risks to health
  • so far as is reasonably practicable, consult with employees, independent contractors and their employees, and health and safety representatives when identifying or assessing hazards or risks and making decisions about risk control measures
  • ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that persons other than employees are not exposed to risks to their health or safety arising from the conduct of the employer's undertaking

Under the OHS Regulations, employers and self-employed persons must:

  • identify all hazards associated with the use of plant at the workplace, so far as is reasonably practicable
  • control risks associated with plant so far as is reasonably practicable in accordance with the plant hierarchy of control
  • ensure plant is inspected to the extent necessary to ensure that risks associated with its use are monitored

For further information on the plant hierarchy of control see the Plant compliance code.

Further information